Where Is 10 Degrees Btdc

This measurement is given in degrees (of crankshaft rotation) before the piston reaches top dead center (BTDC). This is important as any offset will also yield the same offset value to your MS Spark Map. Hello, i have read in these forums and in some magazine articles that the distributor on small and big block engines should be installed with timing mark at 10 degrees BTDC with rotor pointing to #1 , and others say to install it with timing pointer at 0 degrees, which is correct and what is the advantage/disadvantage of installing it at 10 BTDC?. I noticed two things: A very slight increase in spark knock at highway speeds and just a tad more of acceleration. In the case of no intake advance, the intake open point is the same as the previous years. Hope this helps! So - that's it! Let me know if this article has been a help you…and, of course, when you decide to order, please consider Aircooled. 10 mil to degree = 0. 5 degrees BTDC might be right for some 009 distributors, but not necessarily for all. This is the part that confuses me: He sets it to 10 but it idles at 30 degrees? Either there are no springs in the 009 and it goes straight to max advance as soon as the engine starts or it idles at 2500 RPM. To use this chart below, for example if you have a 8" Balancer with a 10-Degree mark from the key way center line and want to use it with a timing cover with a 30-Degree timing tag, then using the table below in the DEGREES / 10 to 30 column you will see for a 8-inch balancer you need to measure 1. I can now get 1 degree btdc with base timing set, however the timing advances to about 14 degrees btdc when everything is put back!!!!. See figure 721. Need advice on how to fix it? ask here Moderators: faux, easy, Clem 21 posts 1; 2; Next. If intake valves open at 10 degrees BTDC and exhaust valves close at 9 degrees ATDC, why did Ferrari suggest to zero the dial indicator at 9 degrees BTDC and measure 0. Rotary Valve timing 101(installation) This is a discussion on Rotary Valve timing 101(installation) within the How To forums, part of the The Performance Tuning Shop category; In this Post I'm going to Show you how To install and time A ski-doo motor That uses a rotary valve timing system. Rotate engine to 50 degrees BTDC on the compression stroke. The engine's definitely running sweeter after all that but there's clearly a bit of tweaking to be done once I get the rev counter working so I know I'm checking the timing at the correct revs. Dial-a-jet set at leanest Altitude: 7000 ft, temp 50 degrees DG pipes, K&N with y-tube, boyesen reeds, enlarged reed cage Comments: I also increased the compression so that it is about 150 psi at sea level, but at my altitude it is more like 130 psi. NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Waldron, W. Re:Engine Timing Specs for '94 351 indmar 8 degrees BTDC is the factory setting on a PCM 351.



For example, if the degree wheel reading at 0. My vacuum stabilizes at higher rpm. Although on an older car like this you'll find you get better performance by advancing it a little more. Failing that, check for vacuum leaks between turbo and inlet, including pop off valve. "I think the line from suprf1y is "If you experience very poor low RPM performance with good power above 4000-5000 RPM then you are 1 full tooth retar. Mine was out about 40 degrees. -Attach Mopar timing tape or measure and mark degree increments on the vibration damper to about 40 BTDC. Camshaft Lobe Center / Duration Calculator: Intake Opens BTDC (ATDC is -) : (in degrees) Intake Closes ABDC : (in degrees) Exhaust Opens BBDC : (in degrees) Exhaust Closes ATDC (BTDC is -) : (in degrees) Input Intake Opening,Close and Exhaust Opening/Close Please. For example, if you want timing at 25 degrees BTDC at 2500 RPM go to RPM IGN 2500 and enter 25. - while engine is idling, I see im getting about dead on 1 degree BTDC - rotated dist slowly clockwise till I hit 10 degrees BTDC - tightened bolt that locks dist in place - hooked up vacuum line back into dist vac advance - As I plugged in the vacuum line the timing changed from 10 BTDC to 8 BTDC during idle. The ignition timing is set at 10 degrees BTC. The ignition timing is currently set to 10 degrees BTDC. Here's a shot of the test intake valve train in position to degree the cam. With fuel injection and electronic control over the ignition, the ignition timing can easily move from roughly 10 degrees before top dead center (BTDC) to as much as 50 degrees BTDC under light load cruising situations. Intake cam is 10 deg advanced relative to the exhaust cam. I suppose you could go to 10 degrees but don't go much past there as its tough to hear pre-ignition pinging in a noisey boat.



In 1932, Baird Television Ltd. This is when you know that the position of TDC on your degree wheel is correct. Cam sync is anywhere between 65 and 115 degrees BTDC on #1 compression stroke. I also run around 10 degrees with my 009. imbalance Engine Balance and 10 BTDC to 40 ATDC Degree Marking Range and get Free Shipping on Orders Over $99 at Summit Racing!. -- mechanical advance slightly LESS aggressive than book, coming in around 800 rpm and maxing out around 2000 rpm at about 10-11 degrees (book values are : start at 400, max at 2000, total of 12-14 degrees)-- base timing of 10 BTDC (book says 7. 273's are speced at 5 ATDC. The Toyota E engine family is a straight-four piston engine series, and uses timing belts rather than chains. Converting millimetre values to degrees° minutes'. It is 30 degrees of crank advance, because the distributor turns at half the speed of the crank, and whatever you do with the distributor, in degrees, is doubled on the crank. See Don Chart. I tried Google, not really finding anything. Max retard, not as important as max advance. 34 degrees BTDC There were still 10 head bolts, but the outer 4 were now studs running all the way. A common problem is that the 2 small distributor advance springs get weak, and allow a good portion of the mechanical advance to come in while still only at idle speed. Vespa 90: Vespa 50: 03L h 08 L. 10 degrees Celsius(°C) = 50 degrees Fahrenheit(°F) Formula. All timings were measured with timing light and crankshaft indicator as noted in reference.



335" Material: Steel: Mounting Hardware Included: No: Outside Diameter: 7-3/16" Safety Rating: Not SFI Approved: Weight / Rotating Weight: 11. My factory sticker under the hood says 4 BTDC with wire disconnected. I've read the archives on this web page and on the type 2 listings and those posts that discuss the subject all have different views or opinions -- anywhere from 5 to 10 degrees BTDC, from 10 to 7. A mark is placed somewhere on the crankshaft to indicate this position and labeled "ZERO DEGREES OR TDC. Paint with correcting fluid the 10 degree mark and the pulley mark. I had it set at @12 BTDC. While turning, I watched the oil level and you could see it rise as the piston reached TDC, peak and then fall as it passed TDC. Make a new mark for each degree of timing change. Standard ignition timing is as follows: 6T (Serial No. Still pings @ the same RPM range. For the Pre-HE V-12 engine the timing is 10 degrees BTDC at a maximum of 900 RPM with the distributor vacuum advance module disconnected. As you can see, the slot labeled "15L" is engaged on the limit pin. Re: 351 engine only runs at 30 degrees BTDC Distributor being off one notch doesn't have anything to do with what you read timing wise since you just rotate the distributor to make up for it. 3962-inches counter-clock-wise from the timing mark on your 10-Degree balancer and this will be. By retarding the cam 2 degrees the power band is shifted around 200rpm, giving the cam more top end. Genebraldo Problem 7-1 An SI engine operating at 1200 RPM has a 10. However, I'll go ahead and give you a quick answer based on 3 measures, (i) academics, (ii) student resources, and (iii) school spirit. Join Date: Dec 2007.



The engine idles better, and the torque peak comes on at about 40% of redline. That means that unadvanced timing is not TDC, it is 10 degrees advanced to start with. By doing this it can fire the mixture before the piston starts back down on the power stroke. So what happens is people set the idle advance to 10 degrees BTDC, and wonder why they only have 22 or 25 degrees when"all in", and why the dizzy achieves "all in" at only 2400rpm. Model name. 015 inch 6T (Serial No. 10° BTDC 10° BTDC 3° BTDC 10^ BTDC 1. When at maximum advance, you could potentially have 10 degrees more of overlap. A variance of plus or minus 2 degrees is allowed between the 1. CHAPTER 4 ENGINE ELECTRICAL " Conversion Chart -Degrees to Piston Position B. The fuel needs to be ignited around 6 to 12 degrees before top-dead-center (BTDC) because fuel does not ignite instantly. As RPM is increased, total timing is usually slowly increased up to around 1800 rpm where full rpm advance should be in. Using these numbers, the rotor sweep is a full 40 degrees. Then you wont need a meter to make any known timing adjustments. The manual says that I should be in the range of 12-22 degrees BTDC. Step 8 Rotate the distributor housing and tighten the distributor bolt using a wrench of the appropriate size and recheck the timing if it is not 10 degrees BTDC. Top BTDC acronym meaning: Before Top Dead Center.



A mark is placed somewhere on the crankshaft to indicate this position and labeled "ZERO DEGREES OR TDC. This will start the engine, then via the FULL-dizzy rotation, will give you the fine adjustment to get you your 7, or 10 degrees (dynamic-AND-via timing-gun) whilst running, timing adjustment. The Barra 195 engine had a vane-type VCT phaser – produced by Aisin – on each camshaft that provided continual variable adjustment within a 60 degree range (10 degrees advanced or 50 degrees retarded from the initial pin lock position). So, since the cam manufacturers generally provide you with a recommended ignition timing expressed in degrees before top dead center (BTDC) of the compression stroke, it is going to be best to set your timing using a degree wheel. Usually mpg has hovered near 14-15. The below info from the type certificate for the I0-360 A1A ends with the note that 25 deg. Rotate Clockwise to 40* BTDC Adjust # 1 cyl Exhaust Valve Rotate Clockwise to 20* BTDC Adjust # 2 cyl Intake Valve With MY cam If I were to use the # 1 TDC method the # 8 Exh valve would be 50* off of valve center line & the # 2 Int valve would be 20* off of valve canter line. zulu989 16,874 views. Even at 10 degrees BTDC it seems to run good. There's also a vacuum advance chamber on the side of the distributor which can add another 6-10 degrees of advance timing BTDC, depending on throttle position and engine load. The E engines were the first multi-valve engines from Toyota designed with economy, practicality and everyday use in mind (rather than performance). None of the marks would line up in conjunction with the others. Let’s say, your tune up spec sheet or shop manual recommends that you set your base ignition timing at six degrees BTDC. What you can adjust is the "stops" on the ignition; basically the max advance (normal state) and max retard (state when level pulled against spring to the stop). It was about 5 degrees BTDC. Your new camshaft can be the latest, trick profile in the world, but it will not run correctly if it is not phased properly.



I've played w/initial timing from 2 degrees BTDC (stumbles) to 12 degrees BTDC. It was about 5 degrees BTDC. The ZF 15 MIV is a V-drive, packaged by Mercruiser as the Velvet Drive. There are ways to safely give great bottom, mid and top end. "I think the line from suprf1y is "If you experience very poor low RPM performance with good power above 4000-5000 RPM then you are 1 full tooth retar. Cam sync is anywhere between 65 and 115 degrees BTDC on #1 compression stroke. 9 bbdc in close 75. When the spark plug fires at six degrees BTDC, mixture light-off happens before the piston gets to the top of the bore. As a result, the BTDC measurement can fluctuate from 0 degrees to 15 degrees during the timing procedure. I checked the timing on it the other day and it was set at 12 degrees BTDC at idle. This is when you know that the position of TDC on your degree wheel is correct. There will be a notch on balancer at edge of fan belt that will look to be floating somewhere within the +10 to zero scale attached to timing cover. Set spark timing at 32 degrees before top dead center (BTDC) at 4,000 RPM with the vacuum advance line to the distributor. Centerline 108 degree ATDC Int. It is 30 degrees of crank advance, because the distributor turns at half the speed of the crank, and whatever you do with the distributor, in degrees, is doubled on the crank.



The manual suggest 5 BTDC. You certainly can't go by the factory specs when your engine isn't all bone stock and isn't running all factory components, especially when running an aftermarket distributor, or even a stock replacement distributor. using the following information, determine how many degrees the crankshaft will rotate with both the intake and exhaust valves seated. Why 9 degrees BTDC? 04-26-2003 08:47 AM #1 When timing this '86 GTI (stock as far as I know and with all new vacuum lines), setting the advance to 6 degrees results in an idle around 800 RPM that lopes (about a 200 RPM hunting). >Degrees, and Edelbrock wants 8 Degrees. So i advanced it 2 degrees to bring it up to 10. then take your TOTAL advance figure (probably 28 - 30 degrees on a thou) double the number from the bob weight, for example 10, so 10 x 2 = 20. Greg Lilik and. Set the injector retard to 60 and the injection will start at 10 degrees ATDC. Is my valve timing likely wrong, off by a belt notch? Engine starts easily hot or cold, has lots of power, runs a bit rough. Then I turn it to the factory static advance setting of 6 degrees BTDC and lock-down the distributor and it all works great. It has no effect on timing - it just starts the cycle. Symmetrical cam (both sides of the lobe are exactly the same) centerline therefore is the halfway point between intake and exhaust centerlines. cam Kits 73 tWIn CAM MODeLS 3 TDC Part Lift @ Valve Duration @. The EEC automatically adjusts the timing with the car running based on different loads and driving conditions to get the programed power out of the car based on 10 degrees. 400 degrees Fahrenheit and above, for long periods.



Max retard, not as important as max advance. 004 specific gravity points. The 2010 Honda VFR1200F is one of the most anticipated Honda products in recent years. How many degrees BTDC would I hear detonation? The sticker under the hood says 20 degrees is stock timing. LG Get product support for the LG GT-515BTDC. Why 9 degrees BTDC? 04-26-2003 08:47 AM #1 When timing this '86 GTI (stock as far as I know and with all new vacuum lines), setting the advance to 6 degrees results in an idle around 800 RPM that lopes (about a 200 RPM hunting). I've played w/initial timing from 2 degrees BTDC (stumbles) to 12 degrees BTDC. For my new Lunati cam it's 10-12 btdc at idle around 1100 -1200 rpm. A timing advance is the number of degrees BTDC that ignition occurs. Greg Lilik and. The bike not only previews Honda motorcycle's new design language, but it also features Honda's new V-4 engine. But other. Re:Engine Timing Specs for '94 351 indmar 8 degrees BTDC is the factory setting on a PCM 351. The advance is fixed at so many degrees Before Top-Dead-Center (BTDC) and does not vary. 10°C = 50°F is the standard principle used in the conversion. CHAPTER 4 ENGINE ELECTRICAL " Conversion Chart -Degrees to Piston Position B. I drove my truck after installing the EFI, and it doesn't seem to have as much pep with the initial timing set at 12 degrees. The proper timing setting for the vacuum advance distributor with two vacuum hoses is 5 degrees retarded (ATDC) - set with the engine running at idle revs. 0 EFI, correct? Also, the VECI sticker has been painted over so I'd like to make sure that 10 degrees BTDC is the correct setting for my engine. For example, if the timing specified by the manufacturer was set at 12 degrees BTDC initially and adjusted to 11 degrees BTDC, it would be referred to as retarded.



intake opens 15 degrees BTDC. Using the intake centerline method we confirmed that "dot over dot" was the correct position. But for most milder (read close to stock) engines, initial should be 8-12, total between 32-38 BTDC. This is the part that confuses me: He sets it to 10 but it idles at 30 degrees? Either there are no springs in the 009 and it goes straight to max advance as soon as the engine starts or it idles at 2500 RPM. ; Gilson, E. Specifications: Years: 1986-1993: Powertrain Layout: RWD, Dana style rear end: Make. Except in 1st gear, with little gas, driving away gives a hick up. This camshaft was ground with 110 deg. Re: Setting initial timing to 12-15 vs. 2-cm bore with the spark plug offset by 6-mm from center. How to Properly Set Ignition Timing? Page1 - Discuss Chevy High Performance, General Chevy Technical Discussion, and Chevrolet Tech topics in the Chevy High Performance forums at Super Chevy Magazine. For example, if you want timing at 25 degrees BTDC at 2500 RPM go to RPM IGN 2500 and enter 25. Our fictitious engine is a small-block V-8, any V-8, but these variables interact the same with all engines. Most engines want total timing between 10 and 15 degrees BTDC at idle-. I can confirm that the D10 should be 19 degrees BTDC.



T (°F) = T (°C) x 9/5 + 32 is the method for converting degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit. 10 degrees Off Become a Fan Remove Fan. The '63 shop manual supplement says to set the timing to 13 degrees BTDC. It fixed the problem as there is no more pinging. Here's a shot of the test intake valve train in position to degree the cam. 3 btdc 050 43. After reading and running tests, I took it to a well know MB tech. 1°30' = 1 ½ degrees) If you have inch values see below for conversion to mm's first. This means that the distributor will send a spark to the plug when the piston is 14 degrees before top dead center (BTDC) on the compression stroke. That's no problem; MSD makes a very inexpensive timing tape set (PN 8985, $4. Crank at 50 degrees BTDC. The Notorious 009 "Flat Spot". In order to do this, there is a certain amount of math to understand. Looking for online definition of BTDC or what BTDC stands for? BTDC is listed in the World's largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms BTDC - What does BTDC stand for?. 273's are speced at 5 ATDC. The cam signal needs to occur between 10 and 80 degrees before a crank input (which works out to be between 60 and 130 degrees BTDC for a 50 degree crank reference angle). I want to swap the gears to a 90 mu motor. This creates a spread of only 4 degrees, so we merely split the difference and move the degree wheel (or the pointer, your preference) so that the wheel reads 22 degrees on both sides of TDC.



it is an 89 f150 4x4 with the 5. The key here is to enter a reasonable timing advance for your engine while we verify that our commanded timing is the same as our actual timing. -Find the degree gauge usually attached to the timing cover and visible from the top of the engine. Engine compartment painted, Steel braided hose are put on, engine is all dressed up. That means that the base timing spec is 10 degrees BTDC (before top dead center) The spout connecter os a small plastic shunt that is plugged into a plug at the end of a wire near the distributor. Since 30 degree of rotation was used up the follower gets a little less time in contact with the cam. when i put it in the first time it was set to 0 on the damper then i timed it with a light it allways just felt weak to me compared to my brothers car which is almost the same as mine. ) As engine speed slows down, the centrifugal weights don’t spin as fast, and the timing “retards” back to a lesser number of degrees BTDC. but with overlap that could allow it to suck all the fuel out before it can get combustion. 5 seems to work in most applications. so that would put me right at 8-10 degrees BTDC. Point gap, Haynes Bosch dizzy CDS,. NOTE: Most engines will have a series of marks with degree numbers showing. The Vulcan was a clean-sheet design using the metric system. After reading and running tests, I took it to a well know MB tech. It looks fairly straight forward [all the recesses, tapped holes and spigot holes are already there]. 1995 Johnson 130 HP 4cyl Looper.



Re:Engine Timing Specs for '94 351 indmar 8 degrees BTDC is the factory setting on a PCM 351. But I just couldn't find the degrees BTDC or the RPM's for timing. The pointer is more like a fin (red arrow in photo). 050" comes up 10 degrees before top dead center (BTDC), and your P/N 00010 cam card lists the 0. The power stroke goes to about 12 degrees BBDC. If you want to make sure that this is the tightest point, move the crank a couple of degrees on either side of 10 degrees BTDC and note the clearance and evaluate the numbers. Hee Je Seong, Dr. The distributor was purchased from Caterham Cars in '92 and according to the invoice was a 103FXYS-UL [for X/F Unleaded]. For example, if you want timing at 25 degrees BTDC at 2500 RPM go to RPM IGN 2500 and enter 25. The standard injection timing of fuel from literature is 15. To simplify the exercise treat your control surface as something that will make full 360 degree motion. A mark is placed somewhere on the crankshaft to indicate this position and labeled "ZERO DEGREES OR TDC. 1 at TDC for cylinder 1, but your dizzy drive (below the dizzy in the guts of the motor) can be out of position as much as 180 degrees. That means that unadvanced timing is not TDC, it is 10 degrees advanced to start with. My vacuum stabilizes at higher rpm. 86-91 Mazda B2200 Specifications. However, air/fuel mixture turbulence increases with rpm. With the vacuum advance unplugged, set the total around 36 -38 BTDC all in around 2700 - 2800 RPM You want a nice even curve from around 800 rpm to 2800 rpm Different cams and different compression ratio's will need different variations on this, but this should get it running o.



The pointer is more like a fin (red arrow in photo). My main point in regard to commenting was to the claim of setting the timing to "10 degrees BTDC. First photo below shows the 10 degree timing mark on the rim of the crank pulley lined-up with the pointer on the timing cover of the engine - this is 10 degrees BTDC (TDC is at "0"). Lobe centerline (LC)- is the peak lift point of the cam lobe in crankshaft degrees. However, air/fuel mixture turbulence increases with rpm. Note3; If there are any modifications to the motor,throw out these specs and just figure out where it runs best without knocking at all. This is no time for herculean torque. degree (wrong in the first place) to the present BTDC 10 degree (wrong to an even bigger degree). If it's not, you must readjust the VR sensor position. I've been told the design of the design of the LS1 was to spray the back side of the intake valve. When at maximum advance, you could potentially have 10 degrees more of overlap. I know that on my D14/4 it should be 16. The cam input is typically setup to occur before the crank pulse that corresponds to the first cylinder in the firing order. 2014, 19:46 My buddy is a mechanic and has access to Alldata and is going to help me check and adjust my timing. Had to retard timing 5 degrees to stop ping? I retarded it about 5 degrees so now it is 10 degrees BTDC This also dropped the idle down to 900.



You could have the distributor off 4 teeth and it still woouldn't matter other than having a more difficult time routing your plug wires. The cam signal needs to occur between 10 and 80 degrees before a crank input (which works out to be between 60 and 130 degrees BTDC for a 50 degree crank reference angle). Imagine the end of the crank being a clock dial with 12 o'clock being 0 degrees. Unfortunately the rev counter reads about double so it is not easy to get an accurate rev reading. There are 360 degrees in one Full Rotation (one complete circle around). The 1971 429 and 460 engines had their base timing set at 4* BTDC from the factory. The engine idles better, and the torque peak comes on at about 40% of redline. This means all the values on your MS Spark Map will also actually run 5 degrees more advance. None of the marks would line up in conjunction with the others. The school has one of the top 10 pass rates among large universities in California for first-time takers of the Certified Public Accountant exam. Once you have that set to what you want, say 14 degrees BTDC, you then check the total timing by reving the engine to over 3000 rpm (or whatever RPM that the timing finally stops advancing) and check the timing with the timing light again using the total advance tape on the balancer. The ignition timing is currently set to 10 degrees BTDC. There are ways to safely give great bottom, mid and top end. Usually for stock chevy around 4-6 degrees btdc at idle. Convert inch fractions to mm's rounded to 1 decimal place using the chart below. In GENERAL sb Chevs will be 4 to 12 degrees BTDC for initial and total of 32-38 for initial and mechanical. Learn all the shortcuts, tips and tricks and the correct approach to get you tuning like a pro in no time. As you see, it instructs you to turn it to 12 degrees advance, but then in bold it says 0 degrees TDC. The EEC automatically adjusts the timing with the car running based on different loads and driving conditions to get the programed power out of the car based on 10 degrees. - while engine is idling, I see im getting about dead on 1 degree BTDC - rotated dist slowly clockwise till I hit 10 degrees BTDC - tightened bolt that locks dist in place - hooked up vacuum line back into dist vac advance - As I plugged in the vacuum line the timing changed from 10 BTDC to 8 BTDC during idle.



115 degree BTDC Exh. 95 Summit Racing) with eight different lengths of tapes indicating 10 degrees ATDC to 60 degrees BTDC. I suggest 8. Some engines may have no timing mark and others. These correspond to the SAW widths of 64 and 1792 microseconds respectively. (A common occurance I am told) The engine ran like crap. It ran like a dream for 70 or so miles on the new engine, sounded great no noises or irregular happening at all (I actually thought I was in the clear). exhaust opens 70 degrees BBDC. Any crank degree to the right of zero (positive number) is the power stroke. So what happens is people set the idle advance to 10 degrees BTDC, and wonder why they only have 22 or 25 degrees when"all in", and why the dizzy achieves "all in" at only 2400rpm. Crank at 50 degrees BTDC. Rotate Clockwise to 40* BTDC Adjust # 1 cyl Exhaust Valve Rotate Clockwise to 20* BTDC Adjust # 2 cyl Intake Valve With MY cam If I were to use the # 1 TDC method the # 8 Exh valve would be 50* off of valve center line & the # 2 Int valve would be 20* off of valve canter line. Balancer?Your Rodeo should have gear driven timing. The intake stroke stops about 10 ABDC. If the line is on 8-degrees BTDC for instance, the timing should be retarded to 4-degrees BTDC. N ormal stock dampers wear out and engine performance upgrades increase naturally occurring harmful crankshaft torsional vibrations. note: these instructions cover firmware versions 2. 94 a yellow mark at TDC and a white mark at 10 degrees BTDC. Where Is 10 Degrees Btdc.